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  • 05/29/2024 7:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Data storage systems provide a way to encapsulate the instructions necessary to put data on disks and manage processing, so developers can simply use instructions to manipulate data. Databases are organized in three general ways: Hierarchical, Relational, and Non-Relational. These classes are not mutually exclusive (see this figure). Some database systems can read and write data organized in relational and non-relational structures. Hierarchical databases can be mapped to relational tables. Flat files with line delimiters can be read as tables with rows, and one or more columns can be defined to describe the row contents. 

  • 05/22/2024 12:37 PM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    The CAP Theorem (or Brewer’s Theorem) was developed in response to a shift toward more distributed systems (Brewer, 2000). The theorem asserts that a distributed system cannot comply with all parts of ACID at all time. The larger the system, the lower the compliance. A distributed system must instead trade-off between properties.

    • Consistency: The system must operate as designed and expected at all times.
    • Availability: The system must be available when requested and must respond to each request.
    • Partition Tolerance: The system must be able to continue operations during occasions of data loss or partial system failure.

    The CAP Theorem states that at most two of the three properties can exist in any shared-data system. This is usually stated with a ‘pick two’ statement, illustrated in this figure.

    An interesting use of this theorem drives the Lambda Architecture design discussed in Chapter 14. Lambda Architecture uses two paths for data: a Speed path where availability and partition tolerance are most important, and a Batch path where consistency and availability are most important.

  • 05/15/2024 7:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Loosely coupled systems require component databases to construct their own federated schema. A user will typically access other component database systems by using a multi-database language, but this removes any levels of location transparency, forcing the user to have direct knowledge of the federated schema. A user imports the data required from other component databases, and integrates it with their own to form a federated schema.

    Tightly coupled systems consist of component systems that use independent processes to construct and publish an integrated federated schema, as illustrated in this figure. The same schema can apply to all parts of the federation, with no data replication.

  • 05/08/2024 7:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Federation provisions data without additional persistence or duplication of source data. A federated database system maps multiple autonomous database systems into a single federated database. The constituent databases, sometimes geographically separated, are interconnected via a computer network. They remain autonomous yet participate in a federation to allow partial and controlled sharing of their data. Federation provides an alternative to merging disparate databases. There is no actual data integration in the constituent databases because of data federation; instead, data interoperability manages the view of the federated databases as one large object (see Chapter 8). In contrast, a non-federated database system is an integration of component DBMS’s that are not autonomous; they are controlled, managed and governed by a centralized DBMS.

    Federated databases are best for heterogeneous and distributed integration projects such as enterprise information integration, data virtualization, schema matching, and Master Data Management.

    Federated architectures differ based on levels of integration with the component database systems and the extent of services offered by the federation. A FDBMS can be categorized as either loosely or tightly coupled.

  • 05/01/2024 7:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    A database can be classified as either centralized or distributed. A centralized system manages a single database, while a distributed system manages multiple databases on multiple systems. A distributed system’s components can be classified depending on the autonomy of the component systems into two types: federated (autonomous) or non-federated (non-autonomous). This figure illustrates the difference between centralized and distributed.

    Centralized databases have all the data in one system in one place. All users come to the one system to access the data. For certain restricted data, centralization can be ideal, but for data that needs to be widely available, centralized databases have risks. For example, if the centralized system is unavailable, there are no other alternatives for accessing the data.

    Distributed databases make possible quick access to data over a large number of nodes. Popular distributed database technologies are based on using commodity hardware servers. They are designed to scale out from single servers to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage. Rather than rely on hardware to deliver high-availability, the database management software itself is designed to replicate data amongst the servers, thereby delivering a highly available service on top of a cluster of computers. Database management software is also designed to detect and handle failures. While any given computer may fail, the system overall is unlikely to.

    Some distributed databases implement a computational paradigm named MapReduce to further improve performance. In MapReduce, the data request is divided into many small fragments of work, each of which may be executed or re-executed on any node in the cluster. In addition, data is co-located on the compute nodes, providing very high aggregate bandwidth across the cluster. Both the filesystem and the application are designed to automatically handle node failures. 

  • 04/24/2024 7:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Data Storage and Operations includes the design, implementation, and support of stored data, to maximize its value throughout its lifecycle, from creation/acquisition to disposal. Data Storage and Operations includes two sub-activities:

    Database support focuses on activities related to the data lifecycle, from initial implementation of a database environment, through obtaining, backing up, and purging data. It also includes ensuring the database performs well. Monitoring and tuning are critical to database support.

    Database technology support includes defining technical requirements that will meet organizational needs, defining technical architecture, installing and administering technology, and resolving issues related to technology.

    Database administrators (DBAs) play key roles in both aspects of data storage and operations. The role of DBA is the most established and most widely adopted data professional role, and database administration practices are perhaps the most mature of all data management practices. DBAs also play dominant roles in data operations and data security.

  • 04/17/2024 7:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    To build the models, modelers often rely heavily on previous analysis and modeling work. They may study existing data models and databases, refer to published standards, and incorporate any data requirements. After studying these inputs, they start building the model. Modeling is a very iterative process (this Figure). Modelers draft the model, and then return to business professionals and business analysts to clarify terms and business rules. They then update the model and ask more questions (Hoberman, 2014).

  • 04/10/2024 7:00 AM | Anonymous member (Administrator)

    Abstraction is the removal of details in such a way as to broaden applicability to a wide class of situations while preserving the important properties and essential nature from concepts or subjects. An example of abstraction is the Party/Role structure, which can be used to capture how people and organizations play certain roles (e.g., employee and customer). Not all modelers or developers are comfortable with, or have the ability to work with abstraction. The modeler needs to weigh the cost of developing and maintaining an abstract structure versus the amount of rework required if the unabstracted structure needs to be modified in the future (Giles 2011).

    Abstraction includes generalization and specialization. Generalization groups the common attributes and relationships of entities into supertype entities, while specialization separates distinguishing attributes within an entity into subtype entities. This specialization is usually based on attribute values within an entity instance.

    Subtypes can also be created using roles or classification to separate instances of an entity into groups by function. An example is Party, which can have subtypes of Individual and Organization

    The subtyping relationship implies that all of the properties from the supertype are inherited by the subtype. In the relational example shown in this figure, University and High School are subtypes of School.

    Subtyping reduces redundancy on a data model. It also makes it easier to communicate similarities across what otherwise would appear to be distinct and separate entities.

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